Archives for 2020

Neuro-ophthalmology Illustrated Chapter 13 Diplopia 8 – Miller Fisher, Guillain-Barré & Botulism

104. What diagnoses should be considered in all cases of new-onset constant or transient ptosis and/or diplopia?
105. What syndromes have ataxia, areflexia, and ophthalmoplegia?
106. What is the Miller Fisher syndrome?
107. What is the Guillain-Barré syndrome?
108. What is the difference between the Miller Fisher and the Guillain-Barré syndromes?
109. When should the Wernicke encephalopathy be considered?
110. What is Wernicke encephalopathy?
111. What does botulism do to the pupils and what are its other symptoms?
112. What is the infectious agent of botulism?
113. What is the mechanism of botulism toxin?
114. What is the treatment for botulism?

Neuro-ophthalmology Illustrated Chapter 13 Diplopia 7 – Lesion Involves Multiple Cranial Nerves

92. What signs when associated with lesions causing unilateral or bilateral ophthalmoplegia may help localize the lesion?
93. What are the findings of the orbital apex syndrome?
94. Do brainstem lesions often produce multiple cranial nerve palsies?
95. What are 4 systemic disorders that affect the cranial nerves?
96. What condition should be considered in patients with unilateral or bilateral ophthalmoplegia and normal pupils presumed to result from multiple cranial neuropathies?
97. What is the likely cause of a painful orbital apex syndrome in a diabetic patient?
98. Do normal orbital imaging studies rule out an orbital apex lesion?
99. Does the orbital apex syndrome involve the second division of the fifth nerve?
100. What are the findings of the cavernous sinus syndrome?
101. If a cavernous sinus syndrome includes venous hypertension (carotid-cavernous fistula or cavernous sinus thrombosis), what additional findings may be present?
102. Which cranial nerves are enclosed in the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus?
103. Why do cavernous carotid artery aneurysms often present with an isolated sixth nerve palsy?