Archives for March 2020

Neuro-ophthalmology Illustrated Chapter 15 – Cavernous Sinus and Orbital Vascular Disorders 2

11. When is treatment indicated for carotid-cavernous fistulas?
12. What are the findings of thrombosis of the cavernous sinus?
13. What is the usual cause of cavernous sinus thrombosis?
14. What should be considered in a patient with apparent orbital cellulitis?
15. What are the major risks of thrombosis of the cavernous sinus?
16. What are 3 very serious complications of cavernous sinus thrombosis?
17. What is the mnemonic for the structures and their position in the cavernous sinus?
18. What is the cause of “orbital varices”?
19. What should be considered when a crying infant eye bulges?


Neuro-ophthalmology Illustrated Chapter 15 – Cavernous Sinus and Orbital Vascular Disorders 1

1. What symptoms and signs may develop from an aneurysm of the internal carotid artery within the cavernous sinus?
2. What are the characteristics of direct shunts between the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus?
3. What are the characteristics of indirect carotid-cavernous or dural shunts?
4. Does a carotid-cavernous fistula have unilateral or bilateral ocular symptoms?
5. Do carotid-cavernous fistulas always have ocular symptoms?
6. What are 10 ocular findings of a carotid-cavernous fistula?
7. Which of the cranial nerves is most commonly affected by a carotid-cavernous fistula?
8. Can mechanical restriction of extraocular muscles occur with a carotid-cavernous fistula?
9. What diagnosis should be considered in an elderly woman with a mild headache, and elevated intraocular pressure?
10. What should be considered in all patients with a bruit accompanying a chronically red eye?

Neuro-ophthalmology Illustrated Chapter 14 – Orbital Syndromes

1. What is an orbital syndrome?
2. What are the common features of the orbital syndromes?
3. What are 5 categories of acute or subacute orbital syndromes?
4. What is the most cause of unilateral or bilateral proptosis?
5. What should be suspected if there is proptosis with globe displacement?
6. What tumor is classically associated with fat atrophy and enophthalmos?
7. Why do patients with an orbital syndrome need to be evaluated urgently?
8. What imaging tests are appropriate for orbital syndromes?
9. Do brain CT and MRI scans often miss orbital processes?
10.Is orbital biopsy often necessary?

Neuro-ophthalmology Illustrated Chapter 13 Diplopia 13 – Localization of Findings & Treatment of Diplopia – Syndromes 

169. What is the Raymond syndrome?
170. What is the Millard-Gubler syndrome?
171. What is the Foville syndrome?
172. What is the Wallenberg syndrome?
173. What is the Weber syndrome?
174. What is the Nothnagel syndrome?
175. What is Benedikt syndrome?
176. What is the Claude syndrome?
177. What is the top of the basilar syndrome?
178. What is the Tolosa-Hunt syndrome?